[EM] clone proofing Copeland

Simmons, Forest simmonfo at up.edu
Wed Jan 3 17:55:49 PST 2007

In view of comments and suggestions from Chris, Warren, Markus, and all (for which I thank you all warmly) I would like to suggest that this attempt at clone proofing Copeland be used in a three slot setting.
I'll restate it for the record:
For each candidate X let p(X) be the probability that a candidate chosen by random ballot(s)*  is pairwise defeated by X.
Elect the candidate with the highest value of p(X).
*Note that with three slots you cannot expect a single random ballot to single out a candidate.  Further random ballots are usually needed to narrow it down.  A Markov process can be used to calculate the probabilities.
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