[EM] Second order proportional representation.

Richard Lung voting at ukscientists.com
Thu Sep 1 22:10:36 PDT 2016

Second order proportional representation.

First order proportional representation refers to the election of the 
legislature by PR. Second-order PR refers to the composition of the 

Transferable voting can prefer candidates from more than one party, to 
decide the democratically prefered majority coalition. This single 
majority government, representing over half the voters in the executive, 
is the rational representation, that is denied by first past the post or 
simple plurality elections.

But that is still not second-order proportional representation. That 
requires at least a double majority government, which would represent 
two thirds of the voters in the executive. A triple majority government 
would represent three quarters of the voters in the executive. And so 
on. That is second-order proportional representation.

Note that it requires a considerable first-order proportional 
representation to ensure even a single majority government. We saw this 
in Ireland, when the then largest party, Fianna Fail whittled down the 
constituencies to 3 or 4 members, so that they could win a majority of 
seats on only 45% of the votes.

My 3 free ebooks (Peace-making Power-sharing; Scientific Method Of 
Elections; Science is Ethics as Electics) are now also available in pdf 


Also there are links to my UNESCO essay, in French, on scientific voting 
procedure. And my memoire to the Canadian parliament Special Committee 
on electoral reform (which is alternatively in English as a brief).

Richard Lung.

Richard Lung.

E-books (mostly available free or reader-sets-price)
Includes the series of books on:
Democracy Science (starting with electoral reform and research);
Commentaries (literature and liberty; science and democracy);
Collected verse (in five books).

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