# [EM] Re: Hand counting election methods

Bart Ingles bartman at netgate.net
Mon Nov 17 20:46:03 PST 2003

```Gervase Lam wrote:
>
> > The 2x2x2 grid can of course be extended yet again to a 2x2x2x2 grid by
> > using two sheets of paper.  The first sheet is for those who voted Yes
> > for candidate A while the other is for those who voted No for candidate
> > A. The top grid on each page is for those who voted Yes for candidate B
> > while the bottom grid is for those who voted No for candidate B.  The
> > Yes/No columns/rows on each of the grids are for candidates C and D.
>
> Imagine a large 2x2 grid on a sheet of paper.  The Yes/No columns/rows of
> the grid are for candidates A and B.
>
> No lines demarcate the boundaries of the grid.  Instead, each quadrant of
> the grid contains an outlined 2x2 grid.  Each grid has Yes/No columns/rows
> for candidates C and D.  You now have a 2x2x2x2 (4D) grid on a piece of
> paper.

I would start by separating out ballots containing bullet votes.  You
would only need to go through these once, and the gap between first and
second place in these ballots might be greater then the total number of
multicandidate ballots.

If not, sort out all ballots containing exactly two votes into NxN
piles, ordered into rows and columns according to the positions of the
first and second approval in list order.

If there is a need to count ballots with three or more approvals, you
would need to begin recounting them for each candidate, or for groups of
candidates.

Someone on another list once suggested perforated ballots, which you
could separate into separate piles & treat the same as plurality.

Bart

```