And all this leads too . . .?

Fri Jul 31 19:50:25 PDT 1998

I speak only about the U.S.

Compute the gerrymander math of each state legislature.  That is, the votes
for a bare majority of each house (both partisan and nonpartisan) as a
percentage of the total voters.  Math will be around 25-30 percent.    If
primary votes are used of later general election winners, then results will be
around 5-15 percent.    Send math copies to (1) every political media person,
(2) every university/ college newspaper and university/ college law review,
(3) every university/ college political science professor, (4) the leadership
of each third party, (5) nonpartisan government reform groups, (6) the
leadership of a major party where it is a direct victim of the gerrymander
(gets more votes but less seats than the other major party), (7) some of the
more victimized candidates in gerrymander districts (especially those who get
40-49.9 percent of the votes).

If no response from the preceding, then start a proportional representation
petition with your fellow democracy supporters if you live in one the
following 18 States.

The 18 States with voter initiative petitions for state constitutional
amendments have ** next to the vote totals.

1996 President Votes (low to high)

DC 185,726
WY 211,571
AK 241,620
VT 258,449
ND 266,411 **
DE 270,810
SD 323,826 **
HI 360,120
RI 390,247
MT 407,083 **
NV 464,279 **
ID 491,711
NH 496,597
NM 556,074
ME 605,897
WV 636,459
UT 665,629
NE 677,415 **
AR 884,262 **
MS 893,857 **
KS 1,074,300
SC 1,150,182
OK 1,206,713 **
IA 1,234,075
OR 1,377,760 **
KY 1,388,708
CT 1,392,614
AZ 1,404,405 **
CO 1,510,702 **
AL 1,534,349
MD 1,780,870
LA 1,783,959
TN 1,894,105
IN 2,135,431
MO 2,158,065 **
MN 2,192,492
WI 2,196,169
WA 2,253,837
GA 2,298,899
VA 2,416,642
NC 2,515,807
MA 2,556,459 **
NJ 3,075,860
MI 3,848,844 **
IL 4,311,391 **
PA 4,501,307
OH 4,534,434 **
FL 5,303,154 **
TX 5,611,644
NY 6,316,129
CA 10,019,469 **


Suggested language--

Sec. [A] (a) The name of any candidate shall only be placed on the ballot by a
nominating petition [or an affidavit of candidacy]. (b) A nominating petition
shall be filed at least [84] days before the election [by a nonincumbent] and
may not be withdrawn. (c) A petition shall be signed within [168] days before
being filed by a number of Electors in the electoral area of the office equal
to between [0.25] and [1] percent of the Election Voters in the area divided
by the number of persons to be elected to the office in such area. (d) A
petition form shall be [on 3 inch by 5 inch cards], as follows: NOMINATING
PETITION- I nominate (Name and Address of candidate) for (name of office) in
(electoral area of office) at the (date) election. (Date, Signature, Name and
Address of Elector). [(e) An affidavit of candidacy shall be filed at least
182 days before the election by an incumbent seeking another term in the same
office and may not be withdrawn.] (f) All candidates may have a [0.4 inch by
0.4 inch] symbol of their choice shown next to their names. (g) Partisan
legislative candidates shall have their political party's name (of not more
than [15] letters) shown next to their names and independent legislative
candidates shall have the word "Independent" shown next to their names.

Sec. [B]  (a) An Elector may vote for one or more legislative candidates on
the ballot in a district (plus not more than [2] write-in votes) by voting
"1", "2" and so forth for his or her first, second and so forth choices. (b)
If there are more than [5] candidates (or remaining candidates) in the
district, then the candidate having the lowest number of votes shall be a
losing candidate. (c) Each vote for a losing candidate shall be transferred to
the Elector's next choice (if any) who is a remaining candidate in the
district. (d) The two prior steps shall be repeated until there are [5]
remaining candidates in the district who shall be elected. (e) A lottery shall
be held if tie votes occur in any step. (f) Each member of a legislative body
(or his or her replacement) shall have a voting power in the legislative body
and its committees, in person or by written proxy, equal to the votes that the
member finally receives in the election [(subject to Article 2, Section 2
changes)]. (g) Example-
C = Candidates          Voting Power
C1  21          = 21 +   1   = 22
C2  20          = 20 +   5   = 25
C3  15          = 15 +   3   = 18
C4  12 + 5    = 17           = 17
C5  12 + 1    = 13 - 13   =   0
C6  11 + 3    = 14 +   2   = 16
C7   9  - 9     =   0          =   0
VNT 0            =   0 +   2  =   2
    100            100           100
   C7 Loses   C5 Loses
VNT= Votes not transferred

 Sec. [C] The state legislative power of the People, not retained by the
People, to enact laws is vested in a legislature consisting of  _____
representatives elected [in each year] for [1] year terms from _____
districts having [5] members each.  

 Sec. [D] (a) A fractional part of a legislative body shall mean the members
of the body whose combined voting powers equal or exceed such fractional part
of the total voting powers of all members of the body. (b) A majority of the
total voting powers shall be required for any action in a legislative body
unless a higher or lower fractional part is specified in this constitution. 

 Sec. [E]. (a) A candidate for a legislative body or a member of the body may
file a written rank order list of persons to fill his or her vacancy. (b) The
qualified person highest on the list shall fill the vacancy. (c) If there is
no such person, then using Article ____, Section [B] a political party vacancy
shall be filled by the political party's other candidates in all districts (or
their agents) and an independent vacancy shall be filled by the other
independent candidates in all districts (or their agents). (d) In filling a
vacancy after an election a candidate (or agent) shall have a vote equal to
the votes the candidate initially received in the election.
Some of the above may have to modified in certain States.  IRO is used to keep
the p.r. reform method extremely simple to get both indirect majority rule and
minority representation.
The folks in the other 32 States may have to note the second paragraph of the
Declaration of Independence and/or Art. 4, Sec. 4 of the U.S. Constitution---
"The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican
Form of Government, ***. "

Some States permit local legislative bodies to be elected using proportional
representation by state laws or local charters.

If a local legislative body is elected using districts, then do the district
gerrymander math.   If a local legislative body is elected at large, then do
the math of winners' votes/ total voters (in many at large systems, some of
the winners do not get a majority of the votes).

State law or local charter reform language would be similar to the above

The opponents to reform will be every special interest gang and their very
dangerous monarchial/ oligarchial leadership so some major bravery will be

More information about the Election-Methods mailing list