# [EM] Condorcet Tie Breaker Instant Runoffs

DEMOREP1 at aol.com DEMOREP1 at aol.com
Sat Mar 30 22:49:50 PST 1996

```Condorcet Tie Breaker Instant Runoffs
By DEMOREP1 at aol.com
31 Mar 1996

The Condorcet method to provide for a single winner sometimes initially
produces an inconclusive circular tie situation with 3 or more candidates
each beating one or more candidates head to head (HTH) (using the additional
(2nd, 3rd, etc.) choice votes from the other candidates not involved in the
particular HTH pairing). Example-- A beats B, B beats C, but C beats A.
Candidates D, E and F are each beaten by A, B and C.

It is possible to have instant runoffs, as follows.

1. The candidates are put into a Condorcet candidates group of candidates
(those involved in circular ties) and a losing candidates group (those beat
by each other candidate HTH and those losing in step 3 below).

2. Each ballot cast for a losing candidate shall be transferred to the
remaining Condorcet candidate highest on the ballot and the HTH pairings
shall be redone.

3. If 3 or more Condorcet candidates remain tied, then the candidate with the
lowest number of votes shall lose and be put in the losing candidates group.
Note- If 2 or more candidates are tied for lowest number of votes, then use
HTH to determine who remains. If HTH is not conclusive, then use a lottery.

4. Steps 1, 2 and 3 are repeated until only 2 candidates remain with HTH
determining the winner. If HTH is not conclusive, then use a lottery.

If the number of votes is more than a few, there probably will not be need
for a lottery. The above assumes that computers will be used for the HTH math
if the number of votes is more than a few.
The final winner will possibly have a majority of all votes (depending on the
amount of truncated ballots).

```