[EM] closed/open list hybrids?

Steve Eppley seppley at alumni.caltech.edu
Mon Feb 19 18:15:30 PST 1996

Helena Catt wrote [in ER]:
>In Italy voters used to have the chance of marking 4 preferences
>within the list from the party they were voting for.  In all of
>these countries party discipline is tight because it is the party
>that chooses who is present on the list in the first place. 
>Candidates may campaign for a personal preference but at the same
>time they are campaigning for a vote for their party.  

This doesn't sound like pure open or closed but a hybrid.  Are the
teams working on the closed vs open debate considering possibilities
like this, where the voters open-sort a group closed-selected by the

- - -

And here's another system for the teams' consideration: each party
decides for itself if it will be open, closed, or a hybrid. 

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