# Condorcet Math in all Elections

DEMOREP1 at aol.com DEMOREP1 at aol.com
Sat Apr 13 13:14:28 PDT 1996

```Condorcet Math in all Elections
by DEMOREP1 at aol.com
12 April 1996

The Condorcet method may be used in all legislative, executive and judicial
elections.

Article A
Legislative Elections

Sec. 1. (a) This article applies to the election of the members of
legislative bodies.
(b) In this article, "N" shall mean the number of persons to be elected to
the office in a district or at large.
[Option- Five (or some other number) members shall be elected in each
district.]
[Option -(c) At least ____ days before the election day each candidate for
the office may make public his/her choices in rank order for such office.
(d) Any such choices shall be given to each elector with the ballot for such
office.
(e) The ballots shall contain a location whereby a voter may choose to agree
to the additional choices of a candidate for each office.]

Sec. 2. (a) Each elector may vote for his/her choice(s) in rank order- 1 for
a first choice, 2 for a second choice, 3 for a third choice, etc.
[Option- (b) The same choice number may be used more than once.]
[Option- (c) If an elector votes to use the Section 1(c) additional
choice(s), then such additional choice(s) that do not duplicate a choice by
the elector shall be deemed to be in rank order after the rank order
choice(s) made by the elector.]
[Option- (d) Next to the name of each candidate there shall also a location
in which each elector may give an approval percentage to the candidate (100
highest, 0 lowest).]

Sec. 3. (a) If the same N candidates get more votes than each other candidate
(in rotation), then such N candidates shall be elected.
(b) For such comparison purposes, the choice on each ballot that ranks one of
the N candidates or for such other candidate shall count as one vote for such
candidate.

Sec. 4. (a) If Section 3 does not result in N candidates being elected, then
the candidate with the lowest number of first choice votes (or first choice
votes plus transferred votes) shall lose (using a lottery in case of ties).
(b) Each vote on a ballot for a losing candidate shall be transferred to the
next choice who remains on the ballot and Section 3 shall be repeated.

Sec. 5. Each member of the legislative body shall have a voting in the
legislative body, in person or by written proxy, equal to the votes that the
member finally receives in the election.

Notes- Sec. 1 (b). N could be specified where the legislative body is named
in another article. The above article is only for election purposes.
Sec. 5 produces proxy representation.
------------
Article B
Executive and Judicial Elections

Sec. 1. (a) This article applies to the election of executive and judicial
officers.
(b) In this article, "N" shall mean the number of persons to be elected to an
executive or judicial office.
[Option -(c) At least ____ days before the election day each candidate for
the office may make public his/her choices in rank order for such office.
(d) Any such choices shall be given to each elector with the ballot for such
office.
(e) The ballots shall contain a location whereby a voter may choose to agree
to the additional choices of a candidate for each office.]

Sec. 2. (a) Each elector may vote for his/her choice(s) in rank order- 1 for
a first choice, 2 for a second choice, 3 for a third choice, etc.
(b) Any candidate disapproved by the elector shall be given a zero (0) vote
by the elector.
[Option- (c) The same choice number may be used more than once.]
[Option- (d) If an elector votes to use the Section 1(c) additional
choice(s), then such additional choice(s) that do not duplicate a choice by
the elector shall be deemed to be in rank order after the rank order
choice(s) made by the elector.]
[Option- (e) Next to the name of each candidate there shall also a location
in which each elector may give an approval percentage to the candidate (100
highest, 0 lowest).]
(f) Any candidate having a number of zero (0) votes that is a majority of all
the electors shall lose.
(g) If all candidates lose, then the vacancy or vacancies in the office shall
be filled by the legislative body having jurisdiction over the office.
(h) Each vote for a losing candidate on a ballot shall be transferred to the
next choice who remains on the ballot.

Sec. 3. (a) If the same N candidates get more votes than each other candidate
(in rotation), then such N candidates shall be elected.
(b) For such comparison purposes, the N highest choices on each ballot that
are for one or more of the N candidates or for such other candidate shall
count as one vote for each of such candidates.
(c) If any candidate gets less votes than each candidate in every group of N
candidates (in rotation), then such candidate shall lose (using a lottery in
case of ties).
(d) Each vote for a such a losing candidate on a ballot shall be transferred
to the next choice who remains on the ballot and paragraph (a) shall be
repeated.

Sec. 4. (a) If Section 3 does not result in N candidates being elected, then
the candidate with the lowest number of first choice votes (or first choice
votes plus transferred votes) shall lose (using a lottery in case of ties).
(b) Each vote for a losing candidate on a ballot shall be transferred to the
next choice who remains on the ballot and Section 3 shall be repeated.
---
The option language in both Articles A and B definitely adds to the
complexity and may well be dropped.
The Condorcet head to head math (Art. A, Sec. 3, Art. B, Sec. 3) has N test
winners (a test winner if N equals 1) versus each test loser (in rotation).
The tie breakers (Art. A, Sec. 4, Art. B, Sec. 4) are a matter of common
sense.
Technically Articles A and B could be merged but there would be major
confusion possibilites.
Article B can be split into a single winner text and a 2 or more winners text
for clarity.

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