[EM] The None of the Above Chorus:

Forest Simmons fsimmons at pcc.edu
Mon Apr 23 14:46:30 PDT 2001

It seems to me that in Approval there is no need for None of the Above,
because of the natural quota of 50% approval; if nobody meets the quota,
then None of the Above wins.

In Proportional Approval for seven vacant positions, the natural quota is
100%/8 or 12.5%.  If only three of, say 29 candidates make the quota, then
only three of the seven positions can be filled.  A new election is
required to fill the other four positions. 

To what extent can other methods make such natural use of quotas in
place of  None of the Above candidates?


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