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Tue May 6 19:13:21 PDT 2014

to ranks 1,2,3,4,5 and to cardinal-rating or grade-point values 4,3,2,1,0.

Approved slots are the upper three: i.e. grades A,B,C or ranks 1,2,3 or 
ratings 4,3,2.

Grade D (rank = 4, rating = 1) is the truncation Default grade:  D typically 
signifies mild non-approval on grounds of candidate’s irrelevance or of 
voter’s precaution in a time-constrained situation of ignorance about the 

My ballot has five non-default-rated candidates - each with grades and 
grade-point (rating).


     Bush F=0, McCain C=2, Edwards B=3, Kerry B=3, Nader A=4.  Every other 
candidate:  D=1 (default).


     My ballot is deliberately ‘truncated’ to vote only a few 
non-default-rated candidates.  Each default-rated candidate is far less 
relevant - in terms of perceived chance to win or perceived status and 
attractive message - than one or more of the actively voted candidates.

     In the real world - or even in a realistic fictional one in which 
voters have finite lifetimes and are encouraged to spend their limited 
available time making informed deliberative choices rather than blind 
guesses - the full ballot here is far too long.  Either candidate PROXY 
should be used, or else, using intuitive estimation of probabilities, a 
typical voter will and SHOULD truncate.

     By the way, John McCain’s name is not ‘McCaine’.  Don’t confuse with 
Michael Caine.


Joe Weinstein

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