# [Election-Methods] RELEASE: Instant Runoff Voting (Chris Benham)

Juho juho4880 at yahoo.co.uk
Mon Jun 23 09:23:16 PDT 2008

```On Jun 23, 2008, at 2:28 , Kathy Dopp wrote:

>> Although Chris' voters changed their vote they didn't change their
>> opinions between the elections. If there are new candidates they
>> may be better than the old ones
>
> Juho,  In Chris' approval example, voters changed their approval votes
> for the existing candidates, not simply added approvals for new
> candidates.

Here's one explanation to why this happened.

Let's assume that our voter has fixed preferences of A=543, B=123,
C=99. The election method is either Range with values from 0 to 10 or
Approval.

If the election has two candidates, B and C, the voter might vote in
Range B=10, C=0 and in Approval B=1, C=0. We can assume that the
voter will normalize the vote and rank one of the candidates at 10
(or 1 in Approval) and one at 0.

If the election has three candidates the voter might vote in Range
A=10, B=1, C=0. Or if A and B are the strongest candidates then maybe
strategically A=10, B=0, C=0. In Approval the voter might vote A=1,
B=0, C=0. Or if B and C are the strongest candidates then maybe A=1,
B=1, C=0.

The sincere opinions/utilities A=543, B=123, C=99 were valid in all
the cases but typical voter behaviour in Range and Approval was to
normalize the vote and maybe to vote strategically depending on who
the strongest candidates are. The ratings given to the candidates
varied although the opinions/utilities stayed the same all the time.

This changing behaviour may sometimes lead to one of the candidates
being a spoiler.

> The temperature outside my house is 90+ degrees today and inside my
> house is 68 degrees downstairs and 74 degrees upstairs at 5:20 p.m and
> this is the hottest it will get inside my house today. Yet I have no
> air conditioner, no fan, no swamp cooler, etc.  These same
> temperatures (roughly) exist inside and outside my house during the
> entire summer.
>
> How do I keep my house under 68 degrees inside (downstairs) and under
> 74 degrees (upstairs) all summer with no air conditioner or swamp
> cooler when it is routinely in the 90s outside?

A large cellar or other heat/cold storage capabilities would help.
Maybe also modern windows, isolation and cool nights.

Juho

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