Non-votes aren't half-votes.

Sun Feb 27 00:36:32 PST 2000

>D- What would an "average" citizen voter think [about tie votes] ?

Mr. O.- Good question. I'd argue to that citizen that, in a method where
it makes a difference in the results, it's undemocratic to
count you as casting votes that you didn't cast. I'm not saying
that you don't have a different interpretation of what it means
to cast a vote.
D- I note that there are many ties in certain sports (such as professional 
hockey) in which each team gets 1 point if there is a tie in a game.  

For non hockey folks- the winner in a game gets 2 points, a loser gets 0 

There are the 4 types of tie vote cases-

A > (B=C= .... Z) (i.e. a truncated vote with at least one vote cast)

A > [B=C=D=...= Y] > Z (i.e. internal ties with votes cast)

A > [B=C=D] > (E=F=...=Z) (i.e. a combination of the two preceding types)

(A=B=C=...=Z)  (i.e. no vote for any choice)

Are the ties all to be ignored or all to be counted for the benefit/ 
knowledge of your friendly average voter having some average sports knowledge 
Mr. O. wrote --

I've always said that if it turns out to  be impossible to get a good rank 
method enacted, then Approval should be proposed.
D- I do not Mr. O. was on the EM list when I noted that Approval is defective 
because it lacks number voting and head to head pairing. 

True rankings

47 A
4   AB
48 B
1   C


A has a true first choice majority (51).  B wins using Approval (52 B).  
(i.e. the 4 AB voters by making second choices defeat their first choice).

In close elections the leading candidate(s) would try to discourage second, 
etc. choices if Approval was being used.  The Approval defect lead to the 
observation about clones (and worst defeats) in head to head circular ties.

I also note that Approval voting in effect gives tie votes to each of the 
candidates voted for (i.e. one vote to each choice voted for).  

BUT, for executive and judicial offices there are highest majority reasons to 
use Approval at least temporarily even with its defect until number voting is 

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