# [EM] P.R. with districts

DEMOREP1 at aol.com DEMOREP1 at aol.com
Wed Jun 16 00:16:35 PDT 1999

```Proportional representation variants with districts guaranteed to elect zero,
1 or 2 or more per district.

1.  The number of seats equals the number of districts (S=D). Each party
getting a quota (Hare or Droop) of the total votes in all districts has its
highest vote receivers elected.  Likely that some districts may not elect
anyone (SMD zero per district variant)  (Possible to have S<D).

2.  The number of seats is more than the number of districts (S>D).

A. zero per district variant

Each party getting a quota (Hare or Droop) of the total votes in all
districts has its highest vote receivers elected.   Less likely that some
districts may not elect anyone.

B. 1 per district variant

The plurality winner or majority winner (preferably - using a single winner
method) in each district is elected.  The overall p.r. seats for each party
are adjusted by removing the votes for the district winners (above the Hare

Possible that some parties may get an excess percentage of the seats compared
to their votes (with plurality especially).

C.  2 or more per district variant

2 or more in each district are elected (using Hare or Droop quotas).  The
overall p.r. seats for each party are adjusted by removing the votes for the
district winners (above the Hare or Droop votes/seats ratio).    Possible
that some parties may get an excess percentage of the seats compared to their

The objective of all of the above is to get (as close as possible) ---

I suggest that the Method of Equal Proportions (MEP) be used to apportion
seats.  MEP uses the square root of S x (S+1) as divisors where S is the
number of seats (so as to produce as nearly equal as possible votes/ seats
ratios for different parties) (e.g. square roots of 2, 6, 12, 20, etc. - with
large S amounts the square root fractions approach 0.5 (such as s.r. of 50 x
51 = approx 50.5)).

For exact results each elected candidate would have a voting power equal to
different parties are almost never equal -- especially with lower numbers of

If number voting (1, 2, etc.) is not used by the voters, then candidates can
transfer their surplus or losing votes (within or outside of their districts)

The 2A variant is one way to do away with primaries (district ballot access
by nominating petitions), have districts (with a limited number of candidates
on the ballots) and permit small parties to win 1 or more seats overall.

The purist party list- one district (at large) systems produce an excessive
number of parties (causing p.r. to be severely attacked - as in Israel or
South Africa).

I mention again that about 5 parties can adequately represent the major left
to right (or circular) political factions (i.e. number of seats = 5 x the
number of districts).

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